Health Life

Artificial intelligence identifies, locates seizures in real-time

This gif was recorded during two seizures, one at 2950 seconds, the other at 9200. The top left animation is of EEG signals from three electrodes. The top right is a map of the inferred network. The third animation plots the Fiedler eigenvalue, the single value used to detect seizures using the network inference technique. Credit: Li Lab

Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis’ McKelvey School of Engineering have combined artificial intelligence with systems theory to develop a more efficient way to detect and accurately identify an epileptic seizure in real-time.

Their results were published May 26 in the journal Scientific Reports.

The research comes from the lab of Jr-Shin Li, professor in the Preston M. Green Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering, and was headed by Walter Bomela, a postdoctoral fellow in Li’s lab.

Also on the research team were Shuo Wang, a former student of Li’s and now assistant professor at the University of Texas at Arlington, and Chu-An Chou of Northeastern University.

“Our technique allows us to get , process it and extract a feature that’s more informative for the to use,” Bomela said. “The major advantage of our approach is to fuse signals from 23 electrodes to one parameter that can be efficiently processed with much less computing resources.”

In brain science, the current understanding of most seizures is that they occur when normal brain activity is interrupted by a strong, sudden hyper-synchronized firing of a cluster of neurons. During a , if a person is hooked up to an electroencephalograph—a device known as an EEG that measures —the abnormal brain activity is presented as amplified spike-and-wave discharges.

“But the seizure detection accuracy is not that good when temporal EEG signals are used,” Bomela said. The

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DHEA Sulfate Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test

What is a DHEA sulfate test?

This test measures the levels of DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) in your blood. DHEAS stands for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. DHEAS is a male sex hormone that is found in both men and women. DHEAS plays an important role in making the male sex hormone testosterone and the female sex hormone estrogen. It’s also involved in the development of male sexual characteristics at puberty.

DHEAS is mostly made in the adrenal glands, two small glands located above your kidneys. They help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions. Smaller amounts of DHEAS are made in a man’s testicles and in a woman’s ovaries. If your DHEAS levels are not normal, it may mean there is a problem with your adrenal glands or sex organs (testicles or ovaries.)

Other names: DHEAS, DHEA-S, DHEA, DHEA-SO4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

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Health Life

Discovery of aggressive cancer cell types made possible with machine learning techniques

Credit: Jonathan Irish

By applying unsupervised and automated machine learning techniques to the analysis of millions of cancer cells, Rebecca Ihrie and Jonathan Irish, both associate professors of cell and developmental biology, have identified new cancer cell types in brain tumors. Machine learning is a series of computer algorithms that can identify patterns within enormous quantities of data and get ‘smarter’ with more experience. This finding holds the promise of enabling researchers to better understand and target these cell types for research and therapeutics for glioblastoma—an aggressive brain tumor with high mortality—as well as the broader applicability of machine learning to cancer research.

With their collaborators, Ihrie and Irish developed Risk Assessment Population IDentification (RAPID), an open-source algorithm that revealed coordinated patterns of protein expression and modification associated with survival outcomes.

The article, “Unsupervised machine learning reveals risk stratifying glioblastoma tumor cells” was published online in the journal eLife on June 23. RAPID code and examples are available on the cytolab Github page.

For the past decade, the has been working to leverage machine learning’s ability to absorb and analyze more data for cell research than the alone can process. “Without any human oversight, RAPID combed through 2 million tumor cells—with at least 4,710 glioblastoma cells from each patient—from 28 glioblastomas, flagging the most unusual cells and patterns for us to look into,” said Ihrie. “We’re able to find the needles in the haystack without searching the entire haystack. This technology lets us devote our attention to better understanding the most dangerous and to get closer to ultimately curing brain cancer.”

Fed into RAPID were data on cellular proteins that govern the identity and function of neural stem cells and other brain cells. The data type used is called single-cell mass

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Methylmalonic Acid (MMA) Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test

What happens during an MMA test?

MMA levels may be checked in blood or urine.

During a blood test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

During a newborn screening, a health care provider will clean your baby’s heel with alcohol and poke the heel with a small needle. The provider will collect a few drops of blood and put a bandage on the site.

MMA urine testing may be ordered as a 24-hour urine sample test or a random urine test.

For a 24-hour urine sample test, you’ll need to collect all urine passed in a 24-hour period. Your health care provider or a laboratory professional will give a container to collect your urine and instructions on how to collect and store your samples. A 24-hour urine sample test generally includes the following steps:

  • Empty your bladder in the morning and flush that urine away. Record the time.
  • For the next 24 hours, save all your urine passed in the container provided.
  • Store your urine container in the refrigerator or a cooler with ice.
  • Return the sample container to your health care provider’s office or the laboratory as instructed.

For a random urine test, your sample of urine may be collected any time of the day.

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