Health Life

Artificial intelligence can improve how chest images are used in care of COVID-19 patients

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

According to a recent report by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers, artificial intelligence (AI) should be used to expand the role of chest X-ray imaging—using computed tomography, or CT—in diagnosing and assessing coronavirus infection so that it can be more than just a means of screening for signs of COVID-19 in a patient’s lungs.

Within the study, published in the May 6 issue of Radiology: Artificial Intelligence, the researchers say that “AI’s power to generate models from large volumes of information—fusing molecular, clinical, epidemiological and imaging data—may accelerate solutions to detect, contain and treat COVID-19.”

Although CT chest imaging is not currently a routine method for diagnosing COVID-19 in patients, it has been helpful in excluding other possible causes for COVID-like symptoms, confirming a diagnosis made by another means or providing critical data for monitoring a patient’s progress in severe cases of the disease. The Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers believe this isn’t enough, making the case that there is “an untapped potential” for AI-enhanced imaging to improve. They suggest the technology can be used for:

  • Risk stratification, the process of categorizing patients for the type of care they receive based on the predicted course of their COVID-19 infection.
  • Treatment monitoring to define the effectiveness of agents used to combat the disease.
  • Modeling how COVID-19 behaves, so that novel, customized therapies can be developed, tested and deployed.

For example, the researchers propose that “AI may help identify the immunological markers most associated with poor clinical course, which may yield new targets” for drugs that will direct the against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.

Radiologists use deep learning to find signs of COVID-19 in chest X-rays

More information:
Shinjini Kundu et al, How Might AI and Chest Imaging Help Unravel COVID-19’s Mysteries?, Radiology: Artificial Intelligence
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Pelvic Fractures – Injuries and Poisoning

  • For minor, stable fractures, usually only pain relievers and walking

  • For severe fractures, an external device or surgery to immobilize the pelvis

  • If needed, procedures to stop bleeding

When people have been in a major accident are taken to an emergency department, serious injuries must be treated as soon as possible. If bleeding is severe, steps must be taken immediately to stop the bleeding. People usually need to be admitted to a hospital.

Minor, stable pelvic fractures typically heal without causing permanent disabilities. Surgery is rarely needed, but bed rest may be needed. However, bed rest should be for as short a time as possible. Pain relievers (analgesics) can help relieve pain enough so that people can walk. To avoid the weakness, stiffness, and other complications that occur with bed rest, people should walk, stand, and put their full weight on the joint as soon as possible, even if they can do so only for a short time. Trying to walk does not injure the area further. Most people can walk short distances without a walker by 1 week and can walk without aid and with only mild discomfort in 1 to 2 months.

Severe pelvic fractures, which are often unstable, must be immobilized. Emergency personnel usually stabilize the joint by wrapping it with strips of cloth or with a binder designed for this purpose until the injury can be more permanently stabilized. To more securely stabilize the injury, especially if there are other serious injuries, doctors may attach a rigid metal frame to the pelvis, outside the body, using long screws inserted through the skin into the bones. This device is called an external fixator. Once the injury is more stable, surgery is usually done to align the broken pieces